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Alumina, (Al2O3),  is one of the components used in making fire clay. Adding more alumina generally results in a stronger fire brick. Alumina is usually present in basalt , and spectral analysis has revealed it is present on Mars.
On earth, alumina is obtained through the bayer process from bauxite. Whether variations of the bayer process   can be used to extract compounds such as silica from minerals present on celestial bodies should be investigated.